A review of the pre-clinical and clinical literature demonstrates that there is now an extensive body of published, peer-reviewed work reporting evidence for cell-free stem cell derived extracts as a safe, minimally invasive and efficacious therapeutic.

Below is a list of regularly updated, publicly accessible papers that highlight the effectiveness of extracellular vesicles to treat various conditions. There are many more which we are happy to show to prospective patients. To view a particular paper, simply click on the title.

Spees, J.L. et al. (2006) Mitochondrial transfer between cells can rescue aerobic respiration. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA. 103(5). 1283 – 1288.

​Ratajczak, J. et al. (2006) Embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles reprogram hematopoietic progenitors: evidence for horizontal transfer of mRNA and protein delivery. Leukemia. 20. 847-856.

Ratajczak, J. et al. (2006) Membrane derived microvesicles: important and underappreciated mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Leukemia. 20. 1487 – 1495.

Aliotta, J.M. et al. (2007) Alteration of marrow cell gene expression, protein production, and engraftment into lung by lung-derived microvesicles: a novel mechanism for phenotype modulation. Stem Cells. 25(9). 2245 – 2256.​

Bruno, S. et al. (2009) Mesenchymal stem cell derived microvesicles protect against acute tubular injury. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 20. 1053 – 1067.

Yuan, A. et al. (2009) Transfer of microRNAs by embryonic stem cell microvesicles. PLoS One. 4(3).e4722.

Baraniak, P.R. & McDevitt, T.C. (2010) Stem cell paracrine actions and tissue regeneration.  Regen. Med. 5(1), 121–143.

Lopatini, T. et al. (2012) Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles: A Cell Free Therapy Approach to the Regenerative Medicine. Current Biotechnology, 1, 11-22.

Lavasani, M. et al. (2012) Muscle-derived stem/progenitor cell dysfunction limits healthspan and lifespan in a murine progeria model. Nat Commun. Jan 3; 3: 608.

Katsman, D. et al. (2012) Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Induce Gene Expression Changes in Muller Cells of the Retina. PLoS ONE 7(11): e50417.

Anthony, D.F. & Shiels, P.G. (2013) Exploiting paracrine mechanisms of tissue regeneration to repair damaged organs. Transplantation Research, 2:10.

Drago, D. et al. (2013) The stem cell secretome and its role in brain repair. Biochimie 95 2271-2285.

Dong, W. et al. (2013) Antitumor Effects of Embryonic Stem Cells in a non-small cell lung cancer model: Antitumor factors and immune responses. Int. J. Med. Sci 10. 1314 – 1320.

Yousef, H. et al. (2013) hESC-secreted proteins can be enriched for multiple regenerative therapies by heparin-binding. Aging 5(5) 357-371.

Yeo, R.W.Y. et al. (2013) Exosome: A Novel and Safer Therapeutic Refinement of Mesenchymal Stem Cell. Exosomes microvesicles, Vol. 1, 7.

Yousef, H. et al. (2014) Mechanisms of action of hESC-secreted proteins that enhance human and mouse myogenesis. Aging 6(5). 1-17.

Camussi, G., Deregibus, M.C. & Quesenberry, P.J. (2014) Role of Stem Cell–derived Extracellular RNA–carrying Vesicles in Cell Reprogramming. Austin J Clin Path 1(1). 5.

Mia, M.M. & Bank, R.A. (2015) Paracrine Factors of Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Show Strong Anti-Fibrotic Properties by Inhibiting Myofibroblast Differentiation and Collagen Synthesis. J Stem Cell Res Ther 5: 282.

Kim, D. et al. (2015) Health Span-Extending Activity of Human Amniotic Membrane-and adipose tissue-derived Stem Cells in F344 Rats. Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 4. 1-11.

Katsuda, T. & Ochiya, T. (2015) Molecular signatures of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle-mediated tissue repair. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 6:212.

Lener, T. et al. (2015) Applying extracellular vesicles based therapeutics in clinical trials: an ISEV position paper. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles, 4: 30087.

Konala, V.B.R. et al. (2016) The current landscape of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome: A new paradigm for cell-free regeneration. Cytotherapy; 18: 13–24.

Kim, Y. et al. (2016) Gene Profiles in a Smoke-Induced COPD Mouse Lung Model Following Treatment with Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Mol. Cells; 39(10): 728-733.

Kim, D. et al. (2016) Chromatographically isolated CD63+CD81+ extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stromal cells rescue cognitive impairments after TBI. PNAS, 113(1): 170-175.

Pitt, J.M. et al. (2016) Extracellular vesicles: masters of intercellular communication and potential clinical interventions. J Clin Invest.;126(4):1139–1143.

Zappulli, V. et al. (2016) Extracellular vesicles and intercellular communication within the nervous system. J Clin Invest.;126(4):1198–1207.

Mead, B. & Tomarev, S. (2017) Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes Promote Survival of Retinal Ganglion Cells Through miRNA-Dependent Mechanisms. Stem Cells Transl Med. Apr,6(4):1273-1285.

Grigorian-Shamagian, L. et al. (2017) Cardiac and systemic rejuvenation after cardiosphere-derived cell therapy in senescent rats. European Heart Journal; 0, 1–12.

Dahbour, S. et al. (2017) Mesenchymal stem cells and conditioned media in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients: Clinical, ophthalmological and radiological assessments of safety and efficacy. CNS Neurosci Ther.,23:866–874.